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How to Do Research




Any information you derive from an external source of information - quotes, paraphrases, data, statistics, images, etc.- should be cited within the text of your paper, not just on your List of References (Works Cited) page. These are called in-text citations, or parenthetical references.

In-text citations require sources to be cited in an abbreviated style within the text of a document rather than in footnotes or endnotes. The full citation style is required for the Works Cited page. Both the APA and MLA styles require in-text citations.

The following examples adhere to MLA standards. An in-text citation may include: (1) the author's name incorporated into the text with the page number in parenthesis at the end of the statement or (2) the author's name and the page number in parentheses at the end of the sentence or paragraph. If you incorporate the author's name into your text, give only the page number in parentheses. For example:

According to Krushke, an assault weapon can be defined as "any weapon used in an assault on another individual" (375).

If the context does not identify the author, include the author's last name before the page number:

An assault weapon can be defined as "any weapon used in an assault on another individual" (Krushke 375).

When a long passage consists of material taken from another source, you should place the parenthetical reference at the end of the passage rather than at the end of each sentence. For example:

Some of the research on gun control laws is controversial. A famous study by Dr. John H. Sloan compared crime statistics in Vancouver and Seattle, cities with similar demographic characteristics. The study found that the rate of violent crime involving the use of handguns was much lower in Vancouver than in Seattle, and concluded that the primary reason for this difference was the presence of stricter gun laws in Vancouver. Critics point out that the Sloan study ignored other important differences between the two cities, and maintain that the research was therefore not valid (Krushke 22).

Citing multi-volume works
Citing works listed by title:
Citing works by a corporate author
Citing two or more works by the same author
Citing indirect sources
Citing online periodical articles

Citing multi-volume works: When you are citing a single volume of a multi-volume work, separate the volume number from the page number by a colon and a space. For example, "(Moulton 4: 27)."

Citing works listed by title: When there is no author, use a the title or a shortened version of the title in your parenthetical reference. For example, "(Gun Control 68)."

Citing works by a corporate author: If the author is a company, an organization, or other group, it is called a corporate author. You can cite corporate authors in parentheses along with the page numbers; for example, "(Center to Prevent Handgun Violence 46)."
However, if the corporate author name is long, it is preferable to include it in the text, so that the reading is not interrupted with a long parenthetical reference. For example, "The Center to Prevent Handgun Violence estimates that, in 1994, over one hundred children aged 5-9 were killed by guns (46)."

Citing two or more works by the same author: If you are citing more than one work by the same author, you must indicate which work you are citing. Put a comma after the author's name and add the title, or a brief version of the title, and the relevant page. For example, "(Edwards, Myths About Guns, 82)."

Citing indirect sources: If at all possible, you should cite material from the original source. However, sometimes the only available source is an indirect one, such as an author's reference to an unpublished document or a statement made in an interview. If you are quoting someone else's quotation, put the abbreviation "qtd. in" (quoted in) before your citation. For example, "David Hemenway, director of the Harvard School of Public Health, believes that keeping a gun loaded and unlocked at home is a 'potentially dangerous practice' (qtd. in Jacobs 105)."

Citing online periodical articles: Citing online articles can be problematic because, unlike print magazines, they have no page numbers. The MLA Handbook suggests counting the paragraphs, and citing the paragraph number(s) of your quote or paraphrase. For example, "(Peterson, pars. 7-9)."


Unit 6: Citing Sources: 3 of 7


Why Cite Information Sources? | What Needs to Be Cited? | In-Text Citations | How to Cite | Plagarism: What Is It? | Style Manuals | Copyright & Fair Use | Quick References

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Last updated: Friday, 02-Jul-2004 14:56:39 EDT

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